As there was no further mention of this relic in his letters, we must conclude that he was unsuccessful in his quest. Again writing to his mother, he stated that: I cannot say if Divine Providence will spare me in this my third campaign but I am quite resigned to accept death, if such be the Divine Will […] even should I be called I shall be happier above than here, and God knows we have not much reason to regret this world which for us has not been one of pleasure. NLI Ms 13, he positive and upbeat young man of had been replaced with one cognizant of his own mortality and sensing his impending doom after ten years of intermittent warfare.
Contemporaries of Delahoyde also exhibited a strong religious tone in their communications. He visited only Catholic sites during his time in Rome, and proudly described seeing Pope Pius IX in person on a number of occa- sions. Writing about the Pa- pal Battalion of St Patrick over half a century later, another veteran, Michael Smith, was very defensive of the cause for which he had fought. Other writings by men of the Papal Battalion expressed similar sentiments to these.
It was also an important reason why a number of Irish soldiers, including Delahoyde, subsequently spent many years in the service of Pope Pius IX as part of the Papal Zouaves.
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Yet, obviously it was not the only reason. Faith did not rule out other motivations for enlisting. Anger towards Britain also played its part, exacerbated by anti-Catholicism and anti-Papal sentiments in the British press, along with the British support for Garibaldi. In fact, the British, eager to assist any movement that would weaken the Catholic powers of France and Austria on the European stage, unoicially backed the Italian uniication movement. Whilst this was predominantly for spiritual reasons, there was also a political motive for many of the men.
It is also interesting to observe that, though the opponents of the Irish during the brief conlict in Italy were also Catholics, this fact does not appear to have caused many of the Irishmen to doubt the legitimacy of the endeavour. Nei- ther did this fact lead Irish people in Ireland to support fellow Catholics in the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia or those in the Papal States who wished to be part of a united Italy.
It is clear from the widespread show of support at home, including the raising of eighty thousand pounds less than a decade after the Famine had ended, that the eyes and support of Irish Catholics were concentrated solely on Rome and the Papacy. Soon after he left the Papal Zouaves and returned to Ireland. In , while liv- ing back in his hometown of Dublin, Albert Delahoyde wrote to Monsignor To- bias Kirby, Rector of the Pontiical Irish College in Rome, seeking the pension to which he believed he was entitled from the Papal Authorities.
In this letter, he informed Kirby that the majority of his remaining family had emigrated to the United States in June , where soon thereafter they had met with tragedy. Even at this late date and after all the setbacks and defeats that had come his way in defence of his religion, Delahoyde appeared to have never wavered in the strength of his religious convictions. Shortly thereafter, Delahoyde received a position in the Indian mail ser- vice, with the duty of travelling with the post from London to Brindisi.
At this point in the nineteenth century, mail for India would leave London by train, cross the channel by ferry, and then continue by train across France and Italy until it reached the heel of Italy. Here at Brindisi it would be load- ed onto a ship bound for Bombay. Delahoyde travelled this route helping to guard the mail until his retirement.
After retiring in , he lived quietly in London until his death at the relatively young age of 63 in It is fair to say that Delahoyde was emblematic of the many young Irishmen who vol- unteered to ight in Italy in His youthful sense of adventure, Irish pat- riotism, ofensive views on the Italians with whom he came in contact, and, most of all, his strong sense of Irish Catholic identity, were characteristics many of the soldiers of the Papal Battalion of St Patrick possessed. His lengthy stay in Italy and his service in the Papal Zouaves meant that he witnessed the completion of Italian uniication, unlike the majority of his Papal Battalion colleagues.
His multilingualism and interest in travel also marked him as exceptional, since most of the Irishmen who travelled to Italy in the summer of could only speak English or Irish, and exhibited no desire to stay in Italy following their service in the Papal Battalion of St Patrick. In the wider picture, the relationship between Ireland and Italy at this point in the mid-nineteenth century can be said to have been one of lost possibilities.
Ireland and Italy had a number of commonalities by the early s. Instead, they took up opposing positions — the anticlerical Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia and the later Italian Kingdom versus the most prevalent Irish version of national- ism and identity which embraced Catholicism. Bergin, Maj.
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Barr, M. Finelli, A. He moved to Rome in where he was deeply inluenced by the neoclassical sculp- ture of Antonio Canova and Bertel horvaldsen. His period of greatest activity was the s and s. Nearly all his work was for Irish pa- trons and he returned regularly to Ireland for commissions. He carved ideal and religious subjects, memorials, portrait busts and igure monu- ments. His most important themes were drawn from Catholicism and Irish nationalism.
He lived and worked near the Corso in Rome and was well regarded by his peers.
After the Roman revolution he returned to Ireland in where he died in His arrival was the outcome of years of preparation in Cork. He was born on 14 October in Tallow, County Waterford, where his father, a Catholic, was a builder. His mother, uncharacteristically for the time, came from an upper-class Protestant landed family and she forfeited her status when she married. Hogan received a sound basic education and is said to have excelled at history and mathematics. His letters read well.
He was initially apprenticed to a Cork solicitor, Michael Foote, but his real interest lay in architecture, drawing and sculpture. His fa- ther was foreman to the rising Cork architect homas Deane and through this connection the young Hogan was apprenticed to Deane in Hogan acknowledged that it was his early work for Deane which allowed him to develop as a sculptor. He acquired a mastery of carving in pinewood and Deane promised to send him to Italy to learn marble igure carving for architectural applications.
However this did not happen, and Hogan might well have remained as one of the many artisan carvers who lourished in Cork in the nineteenth-century had he not encountered the large collection of plaster casts of antique marbles from the Vatican. It was a selection that showed the best of the antique seamlessly continued into the work of Canova. Hogan studied there and a fellow student was Daniel Maclise who was to have a highly successful career in London. Between and while working for Deane Hogan drew from the casts and carved copies of details.
He also attended classes in anatomy for artists by Dr Woodrofe and carved a skeleton in pine Petrie , I, John Murphy, Catholic bishop of Cork since , was a learned man who like many Irish bishops had travelled on the continent.
He commissioned Hogan in to carve twenty-seven igures of saints for St. At this time the Catholic Church in Ireland was just emerging from diicult times and Catholic Emancipation was only to come in Hogan exhibited there in September and the Institution gave him funds to travel to Italy.
Before he left he received two commissions to be executed in Rome, one from Deane, and another from Fleming-Leicester.
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En route to Rome he stayed briely in London where he responded more to the Rococo sculpture of Roubilliac and Rysbrack than to the Neoclassi- cism of John Flaxman. Nor did he care for the Greek severity of the Elgin marbles. He met the sculptor Francis Chantrey who disapproved of study in Rome as he favoured realistic modern dress, not antique dress, in portrai- ture. On the way to Italy Hogan visited the Louvre, and also Florence where he would have seen masterpieces by Donatello and others. While he had at- tained great technical luency, mainly through his practice as a wood carver, his taste had not yet settled in a clear direction.
Irish artists had continuously travelled to Rome during the eighteenth- century: it was the centre of European art since the High Renaissance and it was also the cradle of the neoclassical revival since the middle of the century, stimulated by the discoveries at Pompeii and Herculaneum. Rome attracted the nobility and gentry of northern Europe on the Grand Tour. His most important work was his memorial to Provost Baldwin, installed in Trinity College Dublin in When peace was restored, Rome remained a major attraction, particular- ly for sculptors who were committed to the neoclassical style and the study of antiquity.
James Hefernan who began in Cork carving ornament for the architect Michael Shanahan visited Rome for a short time. Joseph Kirk was there in and Patrick McDowell in It is likely that Hogan met these sculptors. Austere ideals, based on a renewed study of the antique, were to transform European art, especially sculp- ture and architecture.enter
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In Rome the Venetian sculptor Canova was to dominate sculpture from the s and had a great inluence across the continent. North European sculptors like Bertel horvaldsen , who arrived from Co- penhagen in , studied under Canova and was seen as his heir. Although a Protestant, horvaldsen was well regarded by the popes and carved the tomb of Pius VII in While mythologi- cal classical subjects were common for Canova and horvaldsen, so also were re- ligious subjects which served the Catholic revival Arts Council of Great Britain , He carved tombs, igure monuments and busts in a severe neoclassical style.
Gibson specialised in ideal nude mythological igures and he received major patronage from the English nobility who favoured such subjects for their mansions. Since Hogan did not know Italian when he arrived in he relied on Gibson for discussion on art and also for the practical use of his studio. Luke was the leading papal art institution which in- cluded antique and life studies.
It was headed by Canova from to , then by the painter Vincenzo Cammucini until , and by horvaldsen to ; Tenerani became head in Cammucini and horvaldsen were the dominant presences in the s when Hogan was still inding his way as a sculptor. Cammucini was particular- ly authoritative in the Roman art world after and became Inspector Gen- eral of the papal museums. He specialised in history paintings presented like Neoclassical reliefs Hiesinger , It shows plans and elevations of buildings, some from antiquity like the Temple of Vesta, a plan of the palace of Augustus on the Palatine hill and the sarcophagus of Scipio.
Pietro in Montorio, a portico of a Renaissance church, Facciata del Nobile Ridotto di Casena, as well as funerary monuments by Canova and Renaissance decorative architectural details. Luca, Bologna. Hogan can be seen to be focusing on the classical tradition from antiquity to its Renaissance and modern applications, studiously avoiding the abundant examples of Baroque Rome.
In acquiring a knowledge of Italian, Hogan was helped by Fr.
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