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By Lilianna Z. New in Paperback : Hardback : Purchase Locally Buy on Amazon. Add to Wish List. Description Contents Author Subjects. Description Hundreds of lubricant additives are available industry-wide to improve base stock properties and protect metal surfaces; however, the wrong combination of these commodities can result in substandard performance. Using tables to provide experimental data from books, journals, and the patent literature, this practical and comprehensive reference examines: the refining of lube oil base stocks the chemistry of additives the formulation technology of lubricants the performance of the most important finished products such as turbine oils, hydraulic fluids, and engine oils Insight into these variables enables petroleum chemists and engineers to choose the right lubricant base stock and additive combination.
Offline Computer — Download Bookshelf software to your desktop so you can view your eBooks with or without Internet access. View Cart. In the latter studies, Cermak and Isbell 80 Cermak, S. As the saturation was increased in the estolide, pour and cloud points also increased.
The increased saturation such as stearic capped estolides allowed for sufficient alkyl stacking of these long saturated chains producing higher pour points.
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Cermak et al. Among all the esters developed the 2-EH ester had modest low-temperature properties. The oxidative stability of the esters was found to be increased with increase in saturation. Recently, Cermak and Isbell 82 Cermak, S. The resulting pour point values showed a linear relationship between the saturated capping chain length and pour point. The viscosities for the C-4 saturated mono-estolide methyl ester were 9.
Details of the synthesis of estolides by various researchers have been discussed in Table 2. Although ideal estolide is envisioned as a completely saturated material that retains good pour point properties but the saturated capping material adds cost to the synthesis of estolides 72 Cermak, S. These saturated estolides and estolide esters showed very different physical properties in terms of cold temperature properties 82 Cermak, S.
Synthesis of estolides from unsaturated fatty acids opens the possibility of making estolides with wide ranging physical properties based on their point of linkage and extent of oligomerization. Estolides from unsaturated fatty acid sources are only limited by the availability of novel olefin positions. Epoxidation is widely used to improve the lubricity in lubricants by virtue of good lubricity and high oxidation stability of the epoxidized oil.
Standard industrial process for epoxidation of vegetable oil is based on in situ epoxidation, in which peracid is generated by reacting acetic or formic acid with hydrogen peroxide in the presence of strong mineral acids such as H 2 SO 4 and H 3 PO 4 83 Petrovic, Z. Epoxidation is carried out either homogeneous 84—86 Greenspan, F. Analysis of Aliphatic Per Acids. Epoxidation of n-hexene and Cyclohexene Over Titanium-containing Catalysts. In homogeneous catalysis, peracids such as peracetic acid generated in situ by mixing hydrogen peroxide with acetic acid are used to epoxidize vegetable oils.
These epoxidised soybean oil are expected to show improved lubricity when used as a lubricant base fluid because of their good lubricity and high oxidation stability in comparison to pure vegetable oils. Warwel and Klaas 88 Klaas, M.
A: Chem. This is a new and a very promising technique for epoxidation of double bonds. It has several advantages over the chemical catalysts such as: 1 mild reaction conditions, 2 formation of stable hydro-peroxides directly from fatty acid, i. In the recent publications, volatile organic solvents have been used as the reaction media 89 Yadav, G.
AIChE J. Renewable Resources. Behind in Terms of Basic Research. Chemistry in Our Time. Furthermore, they are also used to improve the lubricity in lubricants. Because of their good lubricity and high oxidation stability in comparison to rapeseed oil, pure epoxidised rapeseed oil can also be used as a lubricant base fluid 34 Wu, X. The cleavage of the epoxy ring results in the introduction of hetero-atoms and a whole new series of oleo chemical products that can be used as base lubricants and additives 50 Wagner, H.
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Hwang et al. The modification of ESBO improved the oxidative stability and low pour point. Furthermore, the deposit-forming tendency of ESBO was significantly reduced by removal of multiple unsaturations in fatty acid chains 7 Adhvaryu, A. The lubricant was characterized by improved high- and low-temperature stability.
The reaction mainly consists of two-steps: 1 synthesis of dihydroxylated soybean oil from ESBO with HClO 4 , and 2 reaction of acetic, butyric, and hexanoic anhydride with the dihydroxylated product. It was revealed that low-temperature stability was excellent for hexanoic anhydride derivative. When compared with soybean oil, thermal and oxidative stabilities were found to be improved. The epoxidation of soybean oil was also investigated by Erhan et al. It was suggested that these fluids may be formulated with other functional components such as extreme-pressure additives, antiwear additives, pour point depressants, other base stocks, and diluents.
In another study, the authors have also studied the thermal and chemical modification of vegetable oils for use as environmentally friendly lubricants 14 Adhvaryu, A. The thermal and chemical modification of oil structure can significantly influence the wear- and load-carrying properties under boundary lubrication regimes. The structural modification using diethyl azodicarboxylate in the absence of catalyst and solvent was conducted by Biswas et al.
It was demonstrated that the reaction is versatile and can be conducted under different reaction conditions.mangiardino.com/de-libro-de-manual-manual-1.php
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Salimon et al. The reaction carried out in four stages: 1 oleic acid epoxidation, 2 ring-opening reaction, 3 esterification of the carboxylic acid hydroxyl group, and 4 acetylation of the resulting hydroxyl group in the ring-opened products. Chemical modification of vegetable oils corn, canola, and castor-lauric estolide oils by reaction with butanethiol was reported by Biresaw et al.
Moreover, the effect of chemical modifications on viscosity, viscosity index, pour point, cloud point, oxidation stability, four-ball antiwear, and extreme pressure was also analyzed. The sulfide estolide exhibits similar trends in viscosity index and oxidation stability but showed no change in viscosity or cold flow. Various synthetic approaches were also adopted for the chemical modification of vegetable oils to improve their thermo-oxidative and low-temperature stabilities 15 Biswas, A. Beside these methods, some novel processes have also been proposed for the synthesis of biolubricants with improved properties by researchers.
Lathi et al. B: Environ. The reaction was carried out in two-steps: 1 the ring-opening reaction of ESBO with different alcohols such as n -butanol, iso-amyl alcohol, and 2-ethylhexanol in the presence of amberlyst 15 dry as a catalyst, and 2 esterification of resulting hydroxyl group in the ring-opened product of n -butanol with acetic anhydride in the presence of catalyst amberlyst 15 dry. They investigated that the introducing branching on ESBOs leads to dramatic improvement of low pour point value.
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Thioether hydroxy vegetable oil was synthesized using a chemical reaction of epoxidized vegetable oil and common thiols 92 Sharma, B. The poly-unsaturation in the molecule was eliminated and polar functional groups were added that significantly improve adsorption on metal surfaces. The tribochemical behavior of these compounds was also investigated.
Lubricants from renewable energy sources – a review
Yao et al. Various ricinoleate and hydroxystearate esters and estolides were synthesized and evaluated their antifriction and antiwear properties. It was concluded that melting points, viscosities, and lubricity are suitable for uses as biolubricants. Different synthesis alternatives prior to the esterification step reaction with an acid anhydride were proposed by Campanella et al.
Lubricants from Chemically Modified Vegetable Oils. Two different opening reactions of the epoxide ring of epoxidized vegetable oils were studied. The former caused by the attack with glacial acetic acid and the latter using short-chain aliphatic alcohols, methanol, and ethanol in acid media. Details of the synthesis of biolubricating oil by various researchers have been discussed in Table 3.
Table of contents
Base oils alone sometimes fail to meet the lubrication requirements of a component. Thus, many efforts have been made to develop novel potential environmental friendly additives. Additives are thus required to overcome the limitations of lubricants and enhance the performance of base oils 97— Sarin, R.
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