The English right to the throne of France was part of the Treaty in an effort to put an end to the war that had been raging for decades. Without any organized French army, the English strengthened their grip over France until March 8, when Joan of Arc, claiming divine inspiration, urged Charles to declare himself king and raise an army to liberate France from the English. He established the University of Poitiers in and his policies brought some economic prosperity to the citizens. Although his leadership was sometimes marked by indecisiveness, hardly any other leader left a nation so much better improved than when he came on the scene.
He was a member of the Valois Dynasty and was one of the most successful kings of France in terms of uniting the country. Born at Bourges, Cher, Louis despised his father and attempted to depose him on several occasions. Louis gained the upper hand in his feud with Charles, and brought about his death in Their marriage would not be consummated until she was fourteen and their children were:.
Louis XI was a superstitious man who surrounded himself with astrologers. Interested in science, he once pardoned a man sentenced to death on condition that he serve as a guinea pig in a gallstone operation. The fifteen-year-old Duchesse Anne, not happy with the politically arranged marriage, arrived for her wedding with her entourage carrying two beds. He contracted several unfavourable treaties with Austria, England, and Aragon, in order to free himself of distractions, and then commenced a massive buildup of forces.
He entered Italy in , and marched across the peninsula, reaching Naples on February 22, Crowned king of Naples, he then found himself the subject of an opposing coalition from the League of Venice, involving that republic with Austria, the Papacy, and Ludovico Sforza of Milan. Defeated at Fornovo in July , he escaped to France at the cost of the loss of most of his forces. He attempted in the next few years to rebuild his army, but was hampered by the serious debts incurred by the previous one — he never succeeded in recouping anything substantive.
He died two-and-a-half years after his retreat, of an accident — striking himself on the head while passing through a doorway, he succumbed to a sudden coma several hours later. Charles bequeathed a meagre legacy — he left France in debt and in disarray as a result of an ambition most charitably characterized as unrealistic. On a more positive side, his expedition did broach contacts between French and Italian humanists, energizing French art and letters in the latter Renaissance.
Louis XII proved to be a popular king, introducing reforms in the judicial system and reducing taxes. These reforms and his caring nature earned him the epithet Father of the People. However, like his predecessor, he led several invasions of Italy. He successfully secured Milan in , and then partitioned the Kingdom of Naples with Ferdinand of Aragon. Soon the two partitioning powers fell out with one another, and Spanish forces led by Hernandez Gonzalo de Cordoba drove the French from Southern Italy.
The French were driven from Milan by the Swiss in In an attempt to divert English troops from the war, he encouraged the Scots to attack the English, leading the Scots to disaster at the Battle of Flodden Field. His reign saw France make immense cultural advances. When young Francis ascended the throne in he was a king with unprecedented humanist credentials.
Both monarchs continued in the same patterns of behaviour that had dominated the French monarchy for centuries. They were the last of the medieval French monarchs, but they did lay the groundwork for the entry of the Renaissance into France. Francis1 of the Valois Dynasty.
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Contact between the French and Italians in the long running series of wars under Charles and Louis had brought new ideas to France by the time the young Francis was receiving his education. Thus a number of his tutors, such as Desmoulins, his Latin instructor, and Christophe de Longeuil were schooled in the new ways of thinking and they attempted to imbue Francis with it. One certainly cannot say that Francis received a humanist education; most of his teachers had not yet been affected by the Renaissance.
One can, however, state that he clearly received an education more oriented towards humanism than any previous French king. By the time Francis ascended the throne in the Renaissance had clearly arrived in France, and Francis was an important supporter of the change. Francis became a major patron of the arts. He lent his support to many of the greatest artists of his time and encouraged them to come to France.
Some did work for him, including such greats as Andrea del Sarto, and Leonardo da Vinci, who Francis convinced to leave Italy in the last and least productive part of his life.
While Leonardo did little painting in his years in France, he brought with him many of his great works, such as the Mona Lisa, and these stayed in France upon his death. Francis employed a number of agents in Italy who endeavoured to procure artworks by Italian masters such as Michelangelo, Titian, and Raphael and ship them to France.
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When Francis ascended the throne the royal palaces were decorated with only a scattering of great paintings, and not a single piece of sculpture either ancient or modern. Francis was also renowned as a man of letters.
Not only did Francis support a number of major writers of the period, he was a poet himself, if not one of immense quality. Francis worked hard at improving the royal library. Francis employed agents in Italy looking for rare books and manuscripts, just as he had looking for art works. During his reign the size of the library increased greatly.
Not only did Francis expand the library, there is also, according to Knecht, evidence that he read the books he bought for it, a much rarer feat in the royal annals. Francis set an important precedent by opening his library to scholars from around the world in order to facilitate the diffusion of knowledge. Francis was an impressive builder and he poured vast amounts of money into new structures. Francis rebuilt the Louvre, turning it from a gloomy medieval fortress into a building of renaissance splendour.
Fontainebleau, for instance, had a gushing fountain in its courtyard where quantities of wine were mixed with the water.
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Francis was held captive in Madrid and forced to make major concessions to Charles before he was freed. Upon his return to France, however, Francis argued that his agreement with Charles was made under duress and he repudiated it. As King, in , he assisted the citizens of Lyon to finance the expedition of Giovanni da Verrazano to North America; on this expedition, Verrazano claimed Newfoundland for the French crown.
In , he sent Jacques Cartier to explore the St. The same edict required priests to register births and establish a registry office. An important change Francis brought to European history was that he came to an understanding with the Ottoman Turks. Palaces were extremely expensive, as were wars against the Hapsburgs.
Taxes went up: the taille, the tax on peasants, more than doubled, while the gabelle, the salt tax, was tripled. Francis also used new ways to raise revenues. He sold many of the crown jewels and began alienating crown lands, disposing of important liquid assets.
Francis also began the process of selling offices for quick revenue. While he did not practice the selling of offices extensively he did begin the trend that would eventually undermine the entire French government. Valois Dynasty Henri II. His long-running affair with Diane de Poitiers lasted throughout his married life. He was crowned King on July 25, in the cathedral at Reims.
His reign was marked by wars with Austria, and the persecution of the Protestant Huguenots. Henri II severely punished them, burning them alive or cutting out their tongues for speaking their Protestant beliefs.http://indfinity.net/seducir-a-un-asesino-un-thriller-diferente.php
Even someone suspected of being a Huguenot was imprisoned for life. Henry II was an avid hunter and participant in jousting tournaments. He suffered terribly, passing away on July 10, and was buried in a cadaver tomb in Saint Denis Basilica. Valois Dynasty Francis II. Once the marriage agreement had been formally ratified, in , Mary of Guise, Regent of Scotland, sent her six-year-old daughter, Queen Mary, to France to be raised in the Royal Court until the marriage.
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