Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von, — Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von, ——Appreciation. Studies in German literature, linguistics, and culture Unnumbered PT This publication is printed on acid-free paper. Printed in the United States of America. Disclaimer: Some images in the printed version of this book are not available for inclusion in the eBook. To view these images please refer to the printed version of this book.
Students and scholars, on the other hand, might find it a useful tool. When it appeared in , Die Leiden des jungen Werther, traditionally translated as The Sorrows of Young Werther, created a possibly unique sensation in the history of publishing. There was even a translation into Chinese, a first for a German book. Even after such clothing fads passed, Werther continued to function as an icon.
Forty-four years after its original publication, it was the first book that Dr. It is telling that when Goethe set about writing the second version of , the only copy that he could find to work from was a pirated one full of errors.
Nor did the author benefit financially from products like Eau de Werther or the images of Werther and Lotte that were sold as porcelain figures or on fans, gloves, bread boxes, and jewelry. The novel did bring Goethe lasting fame, however. When Napoleon visited him in , it was to meet the author of Werther, a book he claimed to have read seven times. The New Sufferings of Young W.
There are still twenty-eight German editions and nine English translations in print, not to mention various audiocassettes and on-line versions. Commercial interest in the novel has moved with the times, of course. The present volume, however, is concerned not with reception in the broader sense, but with the history of literary criticism. Here, too, various trends come into play. Scholars, like booksellers and other purveyors of fiction, are creatures of their times, and their methods and results reflect social forces and literary tastes.
Die kritische Darstellung des Bürgertums und des Adels in Lessings 'Emilia Galotti'
Not only do the many interpreters discussed here choose to focus on different elements in the text — or, in some instances, not in the text — they also approach these elements in different ways and arrive at surprisingly different conclusions. And, as we will see, it is not difficult to find interpreters so given to one vogue or another that they become cavalier about the finer points of evidence and logic. A strictly chronological ordering of these interpretations would require a crisscrossing of themes that would soon become chaotic; I have instead chosen to organize each chapter around a particular approach, or set of approaches.
Within those categories, the various investigations then appear roughly in the order of their composition. This means that some multifaceted studies are treated more than once, often in different chapters. In such cases, readers should use the index in order to assure complete coverage of individual interpretations.
This listing of names provides some historical orientation by adding dates of birth and death or, when the exact information was not readily available, at least the century in which the person was born. As prescribed by the publisher, each chapter is followed by its own alphabetically arranged bibliography.
A comprehensive chronological listing of sources is found at the end of the book. In other words, students using the bibliography will find what are intended to be useful, but not complete, listings of each study. Finally, I should add that the final bibliography contains some works that I consulted but did not specifically cite. References to Werther itself include the dates of his letters, on the assumption that readers might be consulting any of a number of editions.
To accommodate readers who do not know the language, I have used German quotations sparingly and then included translations in parentheses, usually my own. A further caveat: this survey may seem exhausting, but it is not exhaustive. There are, of course, a great many French, Italian, Japanese, and Slavic contributions to Werther scholarship, but even within the German and Anglo-American traditions there is far too much material to treat fully. I have therefore included those items that seem to illustrate the major critical approaches to Werther, although I frequently try to point readers to still others that deserve attention.
The most daunting prospect of all, however, has been to try to do justice to each study that is treated: to present its arguments fairly, without too much reduction. I have tried especially hard not to be vindictive in such cases. This history of Werther studies, then, attempts to achieve two purposes: on the one hand, to serve as a useful first stop for those planning research on Werther by characterizing for them what their predecessors have already chosen to tackle; on the other hand, to provide what I hope is an instructive diachronic slice of literary criticism.
In this latter role, the survey reveals some dross, but mostly it shows a rich tradition in which recent studies continue to break new ground, and older ones prove to be worth a further visit. I would like to thank those who aided me in this undertaking. Huffman, who combed nineteenthcentury literary histories for discussions of Werther, and Peter C. Hughes Jr. Patricia A. Carter and Reinhart Sonnenburg, Dartmouth librarians, helped to locate elusive resources. Professors Lynn A. Scher and Ellis Shookman, always important sources of support, read the manuscript and provided valuable editorial advice.
http://idssolutions.com/la-ciudad-infinita-crnicas-de-exploracin-urbana.php Finally, I dedicate this study to Wat and Max. Munich: Hanser. Claudius, Matthias. Berlin: Akademie Verlag, Originally published in the Wandsbecker Bote October 22, Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von. Goethens Schriften, erster Band. Berlin: Himburg. Goethes Werke, ed.
- Wikipedia:Auskunft/Archiv/2012/Woche 19;
- Animation in the Schools, 2nd Ed. (1965-2005).
- TVA and the Grass Roots: A Study of Politics and Organization (Classics of the Social Sciences).
Erich Trunz. Hamburg: Wegner.
Thomas Burger. Herrmann, Hans Peter, ed. Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft. Mann, Thomas. Pike, Burton, trans. New York: Modern Library. Plenzdorf, Ulrich. Die neuen Leiden des jungen W.
- Deutsche Literaturgeschichte in einer Stunde by Alfred Henschke.
- Mass Destruction: The Men and Giant Mines That Wired America and Scarred the Planet.
- Sh! Ive Got Something to Tell You.
Richard A. New York: Wiley, As Peter Hohendahl reports, the novel uncovered a rift between the adherents of the optimistic-sentimental doctrine of virtue and the exponents of Weltschmerz world-weariness; , Wit and power of expression were of course crucial ingredients, but these qualities, too, had to match the fixed standards of cultivated learning. Readers, too, in appreciating a work appropriately, were giving public witness to their own refinement and good breeding. The new theories might still give traditional poetics the benefit of the doubt, but even established judgments ultimately had to withstand the scrutiny of reason.
Critics increasingly stressed that the connection between novelist and reader was a private, individual, and necessarily sincere bond. Although reading aloud in groups was still common, eighteenth-century readers now tended to consume literary works in isolation, feeling as they did so that they were engaged in a privileged relationship with the author.
And it was from this perspective that the earliest enthusiasts judged Werther. Goethe, according to such critics, has fulfilled his part of the literary bargain; it is now up to his readers to open their hearts to his. Readers who fail to appreciate this genuine emotion and instead get tangled up in tertiary questions of literary form or merit simply disqualify themselves as judges by revealing their own lack of heart.
It is intended for nobler hearts, those who will savor the novel more than once. As these reviews assume, the reading experience establishes an individual connection between author and reader; but there is a further effect that is produced among readers themselves, creating a group of kindred souls who partake of the general fervor for the work, its characters, and its author. An enthusiasm for Goethe — or Rousseau or Klopstock or Shakespeare — brought together people of feeling who were eager to join hearts see Lenz , This emotional affinity would then, such critics hoped, expand to embrace additional authors, a sense of nationhood, and ultimately bourgeois values in general.
Indeed, the whole literary enterprise justified itself in the end by its goal of educating, even creating, a republic of readers that would form the new public sphere. Literature assumed this role not only because a true political forum for the rising middle class was lacking, but also because the later eighteenth century assumed that human worth in general, and morality in particular, lay in the emotions Duncan In this model, the arousal of fear and pity became a training session in moral sensibilities.
Literature educated the heart and in doing so created a community of readers who were sensible — in both meanings of the term see Schings The ultimate hope was to produce an enlightened literary public that would be ready to assume the role of advancing the human condition. These ambitions had a national component, as well, for reading German works both required and promoted a German sensibility.
Christian Friedrich Daniel Schubart was particularly devoted to encouraging such feelings.
Theaterklassen des Marianums präsentieren sich zum Schuljahresende
His journal, Deutsche Chronik German Chronicle , begun in , promoted Klopstock and the Sturm und Drang writers because he hoped that an emotional identification with these geniuses, as he saw them, would help to build a German national character see Honolka Kritisieren soll ich? Nimm aber dein Herz mit! Ist bey Stage zu haben. Schubart , —6 [Here I sit with melted heart, with pounding chest, and with eyes from which tears of voluptuous pain fall, and tell you, Reader, that I have just read The Sorrows of Young Werther by my beloved Goethe — read?
I should write a critique? But take your heart along! Enthusiasm for Werther was far from universal, however.
Related Die kritische Darstellung des Bürgertums und des Adels in Lessings Emilia Galotti (German Edition)
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